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Career Planning Process – Process Substitutes Adhocism


Career Planning Process – Process Substitutes Adhocism

Career Planning Process

The Career Planning/Competency Model encourages individuals to explore and gather information which enables them to synthesize, gain competencies, make decisions, set goals and take action. Each individual varies in their progress through each of these stages for many reasons. Some advance rapidly through each or all of the stages while others progress more slowly. Individuals may repeat all or parts of the career development process at various points throughout their lives as values, interests, abilities, and life circumstances change.

Self Assessment

The first step in the Career Planning Model involves gathering information about yourself to assist in making a decision about a career. You should develop an understanding of self including values, interests, aptitudes, abilities, personal traits, and desired life style, and become aware of the interrelationship between self and occupational choice.

Academic/Career options

The second step allows individuals to investigate the world of work in greater depth, narrow a general occupational direction into a specific one through an informed decision making process, and declare a major.

Occupational Investigation Topics

In order to make an intelligent and self appropriate occupational choice, you need to identify and explore your top occupational prospects in depth. Investigate the topics outlined below for each of your top occupational prospects.

Nature of the work in the occupation
Definition of the occupation (from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles)
Why the job exists and the purpose and needs the occupation serves
Major duties and responsibilities involved
Products made or services provided by this occupation
Specializations within the occupation
Equipment, tools, machine, or work aids used in the occupation

Education, training or experience needed for the occupation

College or school courses, or training required or helpful in preparation and location of education, training and work experience
Previous work experience needed to enter the occupation
Type of on-the-job training provided by employer
Length of time required to get the necessary education , training, and work experience
Personal qualifications, skills, and abilities required for the occupation
Abilities, skills, or aptitudes needed to enter the occupation
Physical strength and/or demands a person should have to do the job
Personal interest a person should have (like to work with things, people, data, ideas)
Licensing, certification, or other legal requirements for employment
Special requirements necessary or helpful (know a foreign language, type 60 word a minute)
Earnings, salary range, benefits form a job in the occupation (note regional differences)
Beginning income earned from work in the occupation
Average income earned form work in the occupation
Top earnings from work in the occupation
Fringe benefits typically offered (retirement pensions, medical insurance, vacations, sick leave, paid education, on-the-job training)

Working conditions in the occupation

Physical working conditions (office, factory, inside/outside, noise level) and hazards associated with the kind of work in the occupation
Work schedule (hours, time of day or night, overtime, seasonal work
Opportunities for initiative, creativity, self-management, recognition
Equipment, supplies, tools and materials to be furnished by the worker (car, datebook, reference books) •Professional association membership or union required or suggested as a condition of employment
Dress requirements or clothing preferences of employers. Why? (suit, lab coat)
Travel requirements made necessary by the type of work in the occupation
Possible discriminatory practices experienced by workers in the occupation or professional occupations in general. See Rating America’s Corporate Conscience, CPC Salary Survey or other relevant sources)

Location of employment

Type of work organizations in which this occupation is found (type of companies, agencies, institutions, businesses, industries that employ people in this occupation; opportunities for self-employment)
Geographical areas where the occupation is predominantly found throughout the nation, or in certain regions or cities of the country
Employment and advancement outlook for the occupation
Normal methods of entry into the occupation
Employment trends for the occupation on the national level (note regional differences when available)
Advancement or promotion opportunities in the occupation. Concept of career ladder – where do you start and what can you move up to? Average time it takes to get a promotion or advance to a higher position
Stability of employment in the occupation

Related occupations

Other occupations that are similar to this one
Sources of your occupation information
Sources of additional information about the occupation
Where to observe someone locally in this occupation
Where to get part-time, co-op, work/study, internship, or temporary experience leading to a job in the occupation
Personality characteristics of typical people working in the occupation
Personality traits of people who dominate the environment of the occupation or compose a significant population in the occupation (able to work under pressure, work with accuracy, logical thinking, MBTI and Holland Type)
Average age ranges found in the occupation
Percentage of male and female workers in the occupation (see The Statistical Abstracts of the United States or other references with relevant information)
Numbers of ethnic minority workers (i.e., blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians, So. Pacific Islanders, and Alaskan Natives) in the occupation (see The Statistical Abstracts of the United States or other references with relevant information)

Personal satisfaction from the work in the occupation

Values expressed in or by the occupation (high income, achievement, security, independence, creativity, time for leisure or family, variety, helping others, prestige, recognition)
Status of the occupation as seen by society. What do members of society like about the occupation? What do members of society dislike about the occupation? (use your perceptions of actual values)

Relevant Practical experience

In Step III individuals evaluate occupational choices and gain practical experience through internships, cooperative education, relevant summer employment, volunteer work and campus activities. In addition, more specific decisions about occupational choices are made.

Informational Interview Questionnaire

Use the list of questions below as a guide. Compose questions of your own to fit the circumstances of the occupation or organization you are investigating. Where you read “this occupation/ organization” below, substitute the names of the actual occupation or organization in your question.

In the format below, the topic of the question is stated first, followed by a number of questions you could use to open the subject you want discussed.

Job search techniques used

How did you get into this occupation/organization?
What steps did you take to get where you are now?
What methods did you use to find work in the occupation you are in now?

Occupational/organizational interests

How did you become interested in this occupation/organization?
What attracted you to this particular occupation/organization?
Getting started in this occupation
What entry-level jobs might qualify a person for this occupational field?
What is the progression of jobs from the beginning to the top?

Responsibilities in the work

What does the company expect you to do on the job?
What responsibilities and duties do you have in your work?
What characteristics should a person look for in a job such as the one you have?

Products, services, competition

What products are manufactured (or services are provided) by the organization?
Who are your customers? •Who are your competitors?
What is your rank or standing with your competitors in the industry?

Abilities and qualifications required

What skills, aptitudes, or personal qualifications does a person need for this occupation (or to work in this organization)?
What essential abilities are needed to do your job well?

Preparation and background needed

What preparation, education, training, or background is required for entrance into this field of work?
Are particular degrees or licenses required to enter this occupation?
Values and personal satisfaction
What is there about this occupation/organization that gives you personal satisfaction?
What values are expressed by this occupation/organization?

The organization culture

What skills, aptitudes, or personal qualifications does a person need for this occupation (or to work in this organization)?
What practices and ceremonies mean a lot to those working here and to the organization?
Who are the heroes or exemplary figures in this organization, and what do they stand for?
What is the guiding philosophy of the organization?

Personality characteristics

What personal traits, values, and interests are necessary or helpful to succeed and advance in this occupation/organization?
What personal qualities do administrators and supervisors look for in their employees here.

Causes of dissatisfaction

What are the major frustrations, annoyances, or sources of dissatisfaction in the occupation/organization? What problems, both internal and external, cause dissatisfaction in the job or workplace?

Unique qualities or strengths

What strengths set this occupation/organization apart from others?
What are the best things you can say about this occupation/organization?

Working conditions

How much time do you spend at work?
Is the amount of the time spent on the job due more to the nature of the occupation or to the nature of the particular organization?
Does your working time affect the amount of time you can spend with your family?
How do people dress for work here?
Is the work mostly indoors or outdoors?
What is the noise level?
Does the physical layout of the building(s) make the organization’s work environment pleasant?
Describe the morale of the people who work for the organization and give some reasons for their attitude.

Salary ranges

What are the beginning, average, and top salaries or wages in this occupation?
How does your organization pay in comparison to other organizations in the same industry?
What fringe benefits are offered? •(DO NOT ASK: What is your salary?)

Decision-making patterns

How would you describe the decision-making style of this organization?
Who makes the decisions on how the work will be done in your department.

Organization of the organization

What are the lines of authority in your company?
Ask for an organizational chart
To whom do you report?
Whom do you supervise?
Advancement opportunities
What opportunities exist for advancement, promotion, or change of jobs within the organization?
Where could I expect to be in this organization after five years with a good work record?

Typical day at work

Describe a typical day at work in your occupation and in this kind of organization.
Can you leave your job behind after work, or is it the kind of job you take home with you? Explain.

Related occupations

What other occupations are closely related to this one?
Would you need the same skills and aptitudes for them?
Are any related occupations represented in this organization?
Temporary work and courses to take while in college
Could you suggest any temporary, part-time, or summer work experience that would help a person get ready for your occupation?
What courses in school or college were especially helpful to you in preparing for this occupation?

Future projections

What do you see in the future for this occupation/organization?
Will there be a continued demand for it?
Is the occupation/organization growing or declining in numbers of workers?
How secure will employment be in this occupation/organization?
What changes do you think are coming for this occupation/organization over the next few years?
How can a person prepare for those changes?

Special problems and concerns

Are there any special problems, concerns, situations, circumstances, or challenges of which a person should be aware when considering this occupation/organization?
How would you try to solve these problems or face these challenges?
Other information or advice
What other advice or information can you give to a person considering, preparing for, or coming into this occupation or organization?
Because you know this occupation/organization better than I do, what other questions should I be asking about it?

The return visit

Is it all right to contact you for another interview if I need more information and advice in the future?
In case I need more advice and information in the future, could I make another appointment to talk with you?

The referral question

(Never conclude an information interview without trying to obtain the names of other people in the same or similar occupations/ organizations with whom you could conduct another information interview.) Could you suggest the names of other people with whom I could talk in this occupation/organization?
May I mention your name as the person that referred me?
Would you be willing to write a letter of introduction for me (or make an introduction for me over the telephone)?


An initial occupational choice is made in Step IV. Individuals prepare for and begin conducting a job search, or apply to graduate or professional schools.


Posted by ZuzukiSX4  Posted on 14 Mar 
  • careers, Talent
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